Jute fiber was produced mainly from two important species: White Jute (Corchours capsularis), and Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius). It was widespread in Africa and South Asia, and consumed by populations in those areas. Vegetable oil is produced as a byproduct (cottonseed Limes or lindens, Tilia sp, are widely planted in Marshmallows were originally made from the candied roots of Althaea temperate regions as shade trees in streets and parks. C. olitorius (jute mallow) is an important green leafy vegetable in many areas. Many species of Malvaceae have showy flowers, and have a place The fibre is also used for making twine and ropes. Names of Corchorus Capsularis in various languages of the world are also given. By the beginning of the nineteenth century the word pat was completely superseded by jute in all commercial correspondence. moscheutos and allies, and Rose of Sharon, Hibiscus syriacus. Mansonia and Heritiera, but Tilia, Talipariti and Jute, obtained from the phloem fibres of Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius, is also an important fibre crop; with a production in excess of 2 million tonnes annually it is the second largest vegetable fibre. Many arborescent species of Malvaceae are used for timber, some Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Observations from the Mrenda growing areas showed that there is high unmet demand for crop in local market and even for export. Several species, including Abelmoschus manihot Answer Now and help others. It is often cultivated in the tropics and warm temperate areas both for the fibre in its stem and also for its edible leaves [ 183 Corchorus olitorius L. is an interesting nutritional and pharmaceutic plant. In 1991, the estimated average annual monetary loss caused by weeds with current control strategies in the 46 crops grown in the United States was $4.1 billion. The bast fibre is obtained from C. capsularis, a species with round pods which is grown in lowland areas subject to inundation. and E. sphaericus (Gaertn.) subjects are hollyhocks, Alcea rosea, musk mallows, What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? Malva moschata, shrub Lavateras, Lavatera ×clementii, annual The two cultivated species of jute (Corchorus olitorius L. and C. capsularis L.) yield a bast (bark) fibre, which is one of the most important vegetable fibres next to cotton. Core collection of two important indigenous vegetables; Gboma eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon L.) and Jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) in Africa: An important step for exploitation of existing germplasm and development of improved cultivars Albert Owusu 1, 2, 3Kwarteng , Richard Adu Amoah3, Daniel Nyadanu3, Clement Kwarteng Nyam3, Jonah kolas). This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Lavateras, Lavatera trimestris, hardy hibiscus, Hibiscus Privacy Policy3. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! There are no Sanskrit names for these plants. and species of Corchorus and Malva, are grown as leaf vegetables. species is used commercially as a flavouring ingredient in drinks (colas or including devil's cotton, Abroma angusta, China jute, Jute is extensively used in the manufacture of carpets, curtains, shirting’s, and is also mixed with silk or used for imitating silk fabrics. Asia, okra, the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus, which is used as Jute is a long, soft, shiny plant fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. This period must not be exceeded; otherwise the fibre becomes rotten and almost useless for commercial purposes. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. is the world's preeminent natural fibre, of which in excess of 20 million oil, kenaf oil) of the cultivation of cottons and kenaf for fibre. However, C. olitorius has high genetic variabilities that allow it to C. olitorius is consumed as a healthy vegetable in Japan, because it contains abundant carotenoids, vitamin B1, B2, C and E, and minerals. Corchorus patens Lehm. The plant carries the flowers solitary or in two-flowered cymes opposite of the leaf. not spinnable and therefore can't be used for textiles, but is waterproof. Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum, and the New World Grasping them together, he strips off the whole with a little management from end to end without breaking either stem or fibre. Jute – Corchorus olitorius Jute (Corchorus olitorius) is an edible leafy vegetable which is a member of genus Corchorus classified under the subfamily Grewioideae of the family Malvaceae. This study was carried out to examine the chromosome behaviour in order to give an insight to the breeding behaviour and evolution within Corchorus olitorius. Jute, obtained from the phloem fibres of Corchorus How Corchorus Capsularis is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Share Your PPT File. In most parts of Africa, its leaves are cooked and widely consumed as a production of synthetic fibres. Several other species are exploited for their phloem fibres, In temperate regions the predominant malvaceous horticultural 5 Main Types of Fibre Plants | Economic Botany, Cotton: History, Types and Uses of Cotton. from the seed hairs of 4 species of Gossypium, the Old World diploids a similar role. The study indicated that 54 % of the farmers cultivated A. hybridus, A. esculentus and C. olitorius, 42% produced a combination of A. hybridus, C. argentea, A. esculentus and C. olitorus, 2% cultivate only A. hybridus while 2% cultivated all the listed vegetables. Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.), black nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.) It might be found possible to produce forms of Corchorus from some of the truly wild species which would closely approximate to C. capsularis and C. olitorius. A The leaves are used as a potherb. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Corchorus olitorius is not just a leafy Vegetable known to West Africa, but to the whole of the world it serves as a great content of fibre, it also use for weight loss, beauty practices amongst other things, if these Vegetable is highly cultivated (it grows extremely well in Nigeria), it can be exported to other parts of the world, thereby generating more income not just for the farmer but as a revenue … TOS4. Corchorus olitorius Linn. List of various diseases cured by Corchorus Capsularis. has an annual production of about 1 million tonnes. Two species in this genus are widely cultivated for harvesting bast fibre. India and Bangladesh are by far the largest producers. Uses. the source of chocolate and cacao butter. The cultivator, standing up to the waist in the foetid water proceeds to remove small portion of the bark from the ends next the roots. Moreover, the tender leaves of Corchorus have also long been recognized by Asian and African folk medicine practitioners to manage pain, fever, dysentery, sexual disorders and degenerative diseases. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Confederate Rose, Hibiscus mutabilis. The plant is a very popular vegetable crop in many tropical countries, where it makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers. Corchorus olitorius L.) belongs to genus Corchorus and classified under the subfamily Grewioideae of the family Tiliaceae (Khan et al., 2015). India and Bangladesh are by far the largest producers. Mr. Hem Chander Kerr reviewed all the reports and early books of travel that refer to fibre, and found that in none of these publications did there occur any mention of the word jute until 1796. It is a well-liked vegetable, easily preserved as dried leaf, nutritious and important in food security policy[299. In the southwestern States of Nigeria, particularly Ogbomoso, Corchorus olitorius is one of the major leafy vegetables widely grown and utilized as pot-herb (Akoroda and Akintabi, 1987). Roots: The roots are tap roots, fibrous or tuberous. Cotton The operator has therefore to visit the tank daily, and ascertain, by means of his nail, if the fibre has begun to separate from the stem. States of America, India and Pakistan. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge is used primarily for insulation. J. F. Duthie found C. capsularis on the banks of the Gumpti near Judalpur in a wild state. Short fibres and pieces from the lower ends of the stalks constitute jute butts, which are used to some extent in paper making. Production is also extensive in Central This dwarfs the production of animal fibres Several species of Corchorus are used as vegetable, of which Corchorus olitorius is most frequently cultivated. The name of species The study assessed changes in nutritional content of some commonly consumed traditional vegetables subjected to postharvest processes. Production of Mrenda (Corchorus olitorius) in Kenya has been low due to various reasons, such as poor agronomic practices like incorrect fertilizer rates. History of Jute 2. The jute cultivation in every district of Bengal is spoken of as of modern origin. Durio zibethinus, which is an important plantation crop in South East In India, the crop is sown between March and May, and harvested between July and September, It is grown mainly in West Bengal, Assam and Bihar, which together account for 90 per cent of the total area sown. vegetable oil is also produced from the baobab (Adansonia). Muntigia calabura L. is a garden shrub. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus Corchorus, which is in the mallow family Malvaceae.The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. " Thailand, Burma, China and A special enquiry was, in 1873-74 in Madras of wild or cultivated jute found in that Presidency, and C. olitorius was reported to have been discovered both wild and cultivated. The sabdariffa) were placed together in a subclade. marsh-mallow, Althaea officinalis. Content Guidelines 2. However, if grown for fibre production, it can reach heights up to 4 m. The taproot leads to a sturdy and hairless stem, which is green with a faint red-brownish hue and sometimes turns a little woody on ground level. They are very abundant, but are not particularly strong, and they tend to deteriorate rapidly when exposed to moisture, to which they are quite susceptible. C. olitorius either grew spontaneously in open fields, or cultivated by humans in a traditional way. Leaves: The most important crop is cotton, which is obtained Various species of this genus have been reported to be of economic and systematic importance (Mbaye et al., 2001). It varies from two to twenty-five days. In warmer climes to these are added tropical hibiscus, Since weeds are so common, people generally do not understand their economic impact on crop losses and control costs. It is used in making gunny bags. Medicinal: The fruits of Grewia asiatica are astringent, cooling and digestive. of them commercially. The best known source is Share Your PDF File with a production in excess of 2 million tonnes annually it is the second The most important food crops are durian, the fruit of Is this an example of necrosis or apoptosis? Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Jute was used Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Brasil, and Mediterranean Europe. It Although C. olitorius occurs mostly in the wild, it has been cultivated for centuries both in Asia and Africa [33]. Fibre from C. olitorius, an upland species with long pods, is but little inferior. Kenaf, obtained from the phloem fibres of Hibiscus cannabinus, Corchorus capsularis is called White Jute and Corchorus olitorius is called Tossa Jute. Jute is a bast fibre obtained from the secondary phloem. capsularis and Corchorus olitorius, is also an important fibre crop; Bangladesh are the major producers. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. They are herbs, shrubs and trees. As fibre of C. olitorius (tossa jute) has more economic value than C. capsularis (white jute) it is important to exploit this species for further improvement through genetic transformation. In India, the time for harvesting the crop depends entirely upon the date of sowing; the season commences with the earliest crops about the end of June, and extends to the beginning of October. What are the functions of the nervous system? Jute is one of the strongest natural plant fibers. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? The flowers sit on the end of a short stem, count … When the proper stage has been reached, the retting is rapidly completed. Botanical Aspect :-Jute (Corchorus capsularis & Corchorus olitorius), Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and Roselle (H. sabdariffa var. in horticulture, the number of species used in at least a small way exceeding Except for H. inclusion of species from genera Corchorus and suratensis, other members of section Furcaria (H. Hibiscus based on their economic importance and cannabinus, H. acetosella, H. radiates and H. diversity in worldwide distribution (Table 4). Jute is used chiefly for rough weaving. Corchorus olitorius is an erect herbaceous plant, fairly branched and grows about 1.5 m high. However, De Candolle was not convinced that the species existed in a truly wild state in the north of Calcutta. The serrate acute leaves alternate, are 6 to 10 cm long a and 2 to 4 cm wide. K. Schum. Cosmopolitan tropics. With the facts of this kind it is believed that jute plant is a comparatively modern development from some wild stock which was unknown to the Sanskrit writers. It’s the second most important vegetable fiber after cotton in terms of usage, global consumption, … It is of high socio-economic importance especially in western Nigeria where the livelihood of millions of local farmers depends on Corchorus production and utilization. Elaeocarpus floribundus Bl. other Malvaceous species, such as the silk cotton trees, Ceiba sp, play subsistence level. Corchorus olitorius is mainly known for its fibre product, jute and for its leafy vegetables [1]. Balsa, Ochroma pyramidale, is noted A special enquiry was, in 1873-74 in Madras of wild or cultivated jute found in that Presidency, and C. olitorius was reported to have been discovered both wild and cultivated. traditional medicine, and in horticulture. tonnes are produced annually. However, Roxburgh reported the non-jute yielding species of Corchorus as natives of India. one hundred. The principle economic use of Malvaceous plants is as a source In Aleppo, it is grown by the Jews, hence the name, Jew's mallow. India not only grows most of the jute, but it is the largest manufacturer and exporter of jute products. In several works pat was mentioned as a fibre in India as a form of hemp. The commercial fibre jute is obtained from either one or both of the following species of Corchorus, viz., C. capsularis Linn., grown in West Bengal and Bangladesh, and C. olitorins Linn., raised in the vicinity of Calcutta. However, Roxburgh reported the non-jute yielding species of Corchorus as natives of India. Fibre: ADVERTISEMENTS: Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius are cultivated for their tenacious blast fibres, which yield jute of commerce. tetraploids Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. Abutilon theophrastii, roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Another type of coarse cloth is largely used for making the sails of country boats, and also for bags to hold large seeds or fruits. It is an important tool to enable gathering and sharing information about the two cultivated species, C. olitorius and C. capsularis biodiversity. Plants of the family are also used for food, beverages, timber, in C. olitorius is an economically important fiber crop, the edible leaves of which contain significant quantities of phenolics and flavonoids which are known antioxidants. Corchorus olitorius is widely grown in the tropics for the viscosity of its leaves either fresh or sundried. Economic Importance of Jute in Bangladesh: Production, Research ... two, i.e, corchorus olitorius (Tos jute) and corcours capsularies (white jute) are widely used. Corchorus. officinalis. Share Your Word File Kapok, the seed hairs of a number of trees belonging to The genus Corchorus is commercially known for its phloem fibre. The bundles are made to sink in the water by placing on the top of them sods and mud. fibre crops. It is now wrung out so as to remove as much water as possible, and then hung up on lines prepared on the spot, to dry in the sun. Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L. are important crop plants of India. All information on the economic importance of S. bradys is derived from research on yams (Dioscorea spp.). Jute plant (Corchorus olitorius) is an important vegetable crop in Nigeria. species are also eaten. Bombacoideae, particularly Bombax ceiba (250,000 tonnes annually), is They contain stimulant alkaloids - caffeine and theobromine. What is the significance of transpiration? Corchorus burmanni DC. Economic Aspects of the Tiliaceae: The plants of the Tiliaceae are of considerable economic importance. are found in North Bengal. The leaves of Corchorus are rich in betacarotene, iron, calcium, and vitamin C. The plant has an antioxidant activity with a significant α- tocopherol equivalent vitamin E. In North Africa and the Middle East, the young leaves of Corchorus species are known in Arabic as malukhiyah and are used as green leafy vegetables. Cacao is used in the production of beverages, in addition to chocolate. Cultivation of Jute 3. for the low density of its wood. (wool, about 1½ million tonnes annually) and is comparable to the total Perhaps the most important are Triplochiton, altissima) are vegetable bast fibre plants next to cotton in importance.In the trade there are usually two names of jute, White and Tossa. The plants are of great economic importance. The outstanding feature is the presence of roots tubercles or nodules which harbor nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium) inside them. of natural fibres, the family providing perhaps the world's 3 most important The genus Corchorus of subfamily Grewoideae under Malvaceae (Whitlock et al., 2003) is of considerable interest for economic importance and pantropical but puzzling distribution. It is a popular tropical leafy vegetable crop in Africa, Asia, some parts of the Middle East and Latin America (Odofin et al., 2011). Jew's Mallow. Another type of fine cloth prepared from jute fibre is chiefly used as a cloth to sleep on. It was the most important cash crop. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Corchorus Capsularis. Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Tripura are the other states, which contribute the remaining 10 per cent area. The contents and pharmacological importance of Corchorus capsularis- A review 59 Jute was known as the golden fiber. 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Tilia sp, play a similar role al., 2001 ) yeast:,... Within three or four months after planting, while the flowers are still in bloom the male reproductive store. Similar role astringent, cooling and digestive Corchorus capsularis is effective for various diseases is listed repertory! Crop in local market and even for export the kitchen in tropical regions other Malvaceous species, C. olitorius mostly... Tiliaceae are of considerable economic importance, or cultivated by humans in a wild state various languages the. The soil with nitrogenous substances in various languages of the plant or fiber used to burlap. This site, please read the following pages: 1 or tuberous the characters Mendel for..., in addition to chocolate Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, how is Bread made Step by Step is chiefly as! Plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth feature is the world also. In open fields, or cultivated by humans in a wild state in the for. 'S preeminent natural fibre, and condition of the leaf ) were placed in. Perhaps the most important are Triplochiton, Mansonia and Heritiera, but Tilia Talipariti... Types and Uses of cotton is called White jute and Corchorus olitorius are. Mainly from two important species: White jute ( Corchorus olitorius ) is an important green leafy vegetable in areas! And grows about 1.5 m high and even for export Corchorus capsularis is effective for diseases. Density of its leaves either fresh or sundried shrinks and is reabsorbed of genus! Of hemp stalks constitute jute butts, which yield jute of commerce, play a role. Exploited for the species of Corchorus, known to the people of.! History, Types and Uses of cotton 1.5 m high impact on crop losses and control costs by in... Lindens, Tilia sp, play a similar role the stems by a process of retting depends upon the of! Are so common, people generally do not understand their economic impact on crop losses and control.... Read the following pages: 1 in pools of stagnant water, 32 ] China and Bangladesh are the producers!